Environmental Engineering - Training Colleges

Learning how to sustain and preserve the environment is possible by gaining higher education. Colleges and universities offer degree programs in environmental engineering that provide students with several options for academic study. Students should learn a number of things prior to enrolling in an online program.
1) Training provides the latest knowledge on how to work with the environment. The procedures to protect the environments air, water, and land resources make up the majority of schooling in this degree field. The goal is to continue to provide drinkable water, breathable air, and livable land by removing harmful pollutants and other threats. In order to improve the negative affects of waste, radiation, and more, colleges train students in science, math, and engineering to provide the best protection possible. Students can enter training from an associate degree to a doctorate degree from numerous colleges that offer this program.
2) To enter a career as an assistant, technology consultant, or entry-level engineer students should strongly consider beginning education with an associate's degree or a bachelor's degree. In most cases an associate's degree prepares students to support environmental engineers in the developing of indoor and outdoor pollution control systems. Training focuses on introductory engineering practices and technical principles. Students can expect to work through a program with a curriculum on safety systems, testing practices, sampling procedures, preparation of reports, and laboratory skills. The knowledge learned enables students to conduct studies on hazardous materials taken from contaminated sites. Working through a bachelor's degree program prepares students to be able to design, develop, and operate environmental systems. Training encompasses how to work with hazardous materials and design systems that work to eliminate the source of a problem. The work done by completing a program teaches students how to conduct engineering procedures in compliance with regulation standards. Curriculum provides an in depth look at how to work with areas that include ground water and acid rain. Air quality, water chemistry, and environmental microbiology are some courses that establish the needed information to conduct work. Students are taught to understand the global climate to develop solutions to problems and stabilize different environments.
3) Advanced studies at the master's degree and doctorate level provide the opportunity for students to enter top-level engineering, teaching, and researching careers. Studies enable students to learn how to identify if an environmental project is needed. This training is coupled with advanced techniques and knowledge on how to develop and implement a project. Wastewater microbiology, energy analysis, environmental policy, and treatment design are some courses that teach students how to work in advanced careers and manage projects. Training in designing, marinating, and controlling pollution at the doctorate degree level prepares students to work as researchers. Civil engineering, public health, mechanical engineering, and chemistry are some advanced studies that can be used in many engineering fields as well as teaching.
Working to directly improve the environment is a needed skill set that can only be learned through an accredited college degree program. Agencies like the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (abet.org/) are approved to fully accredited schools that offer the quality education students seek. Students can enter a training program and step into a lucrative career as an environmental engineer.

Important Australian Dinosaur Fossil Site Threatened by Developers

Rare Australian Dinosaur Fossils Threatened Desalination Plant
One of the widely publicised impacts of global warming and climate change has been the very severe drought suffered by much of Australia in the last couple of years. Many scientists claim that global climate change was one of the causal factors in the extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago and now climate change is indirectly threatening the excavation of rare dinosaur fossils down under.
Desalination Plant to be Built on Dig Site
In East Gippsland, south-east Victoria, the demands for drinking water have grown rapidly as the population increases. The area provides much of the Melbourne region with fresh water, now plans to build a AUS$ 3 billion desalination plant in East Gippsland could prevent the excavation of rare polar dinosaurs. The dinosaur bones are located in sediments found on a rock shelf on a beach at Wonthaggi, an area famous for its rich coal deposits, another legacy from ancient times. The fossil bearing rock has yet to be fully explored but palaeontologists claim that it is just one of six known locations where evidence of polar dinosaurs has been found.
The Australian Government's Water Minister has said that the fossils will not delay the much needed project. The intention is to build one of the world's largest desalination plants on the coast, when completed it will boost the drinking water supplies to the urban population. The fossiliferous rock is very important to palaeontologists but planners are confident that the strata will not effect their ability to construct and operate a huge desalination plant on the coast, converting salt water into drinking water.
Survey of Fossil Site Undertaken
Details of the fossils had been included in investigations carried out by the Department of Sustainability and Environment and it has been stated that the fossils only exist in the first ten metres of beachfront below the surface and it is proposed that the inlet and outlet pipes for the plant will be placed well beneath this level. Australian palaeontologists and field workers who have excavated vertebrate fossils in that area remain concerned and doubt whether the inlet and outlet pipe placing will help to protect the rare Cretaceous fossils.
Officials for the Australian Government and supporters of the scheme state that the Earth Science community themselves has acknowledged, if the inlet and outlet pipes are to be ten metres or more below the surface strata where the existence of these fossils have been detected will have no impact to the operation of the plant at all.
Full Geological Appraisal May be Required
The State Government is yet to decide whether to conduct a full environmental effects statement (known as an ESS), for the controversial project. Department of Earth Science staff at the Monash University have led the calls for an environmental effects statement and a full review of the proposed project, not just to consider the impact on the rare 115 million year old fossils but also to examine the potential environmental impact on many endangered native animals and plants that live in this coastal area.
Prehistoric Animals Living Near the South Pole
Commenting on the palaeontological significance of the site, it has been stated that the Wonthaggi location was one of only a very few sites where polar dinosaur fossils had been found, indeed this area if properly explored could yield a lot of data on the ecosystems present at this time during the mid Cretaceous. So far evidence of Ornithopods (plant-eaters) has been discovered but scientists speculate that they may find evidence of Theropods in these sediments also. Meat-eaters are rare from polar deposits. This area has also provided evidence of fresh-water Plesiosaurs. It was thought that these long-necked marine reptiles were found only in salt water environments but now evidence from south-eastern Australia supports data collected from the Dinosaur Provincial Park in Canada which shows Plesiosaurs spending some time in brackish and freshwater. Whether these animals were juveniles from fully marine species or a group of Plesiosaurs adapted to life in lakes, rivers and estuarine environments is open to debate.
Drought Conditions Persist in Australia
The construction of this huge desalination plant, although badly needed by a parched Australia, could destroy forever fossils that could provide further information on the fauna and flora of the mid Cretaceous polar environment.
As more of the geology of Australia is explored a number of new and exciting discoveries have been made. This vast continent still holds many palaeontological surprises and a number of papers and reports have been published recently, many written by researchers at Monash University.

How To Make Science, Technology, Engineering, And Mathematics Cool At School

Science and mathematics are not cool subjects, say students. Consequently, if these subjects are compulsory, students opt for an easier stream in secondary school and are less likely to transition to university science programs. In addition, female students are under-represented in areas such as mathematics, physics and astronomy. Around the world, the STEM subjects (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) are in grave trouble in secondary and tertiary institutions. But worse, STEM university graduates may not work in a field of their expertise, leaving STEM agencies and organizations to hire from a shrinking pool.
In 1995, 14 percent of Year 12 secondary school mathematics students studied advanced mathematics, while 37 percent studied elementary mathematics, according to the Australian Mathematical Science Institute. Fifteen years later, in 2010, 10 percent were studying advanced mathematics and 50 percent took the easier option of elementary mathematics. The Australian Mathematical Science Institute revealed that basic mathematics was growing in popularity among secondary students to the detriment of intermediate or advanced studies. This has resulted in fewer universities offering higher mathematics courses, and subsequently there are reduced graduates in mathematics. There have also been reduced intakes in teacher training colleges and university teacher education departments in mathematics programs, which have resulted in many low-income or remote secondary schools without higher level mathematics teachers, which further resulted in fewer science courses or the elimination of specific topics from courses. For some mathematics courses, this is producing a continuous cycle of low supply, low demand, and low supply.
But is it actually a dire problem? The first question is one of supply. Are universities producing enough quality scientists, technology experts, engineers, and mathematicians? Harold Salzman of Rutgers University and his research colleague, B. Lindsay Lowell of Georgetown University in Washington D.C., revealed in a 2009 study that, contrary to widespread perception, the United States continued to produce science and engineering graduates. However, fewer than half actually accepted jobs in their field of expertise. They are moving into sales, marketing, and health care jobs.
The second question is one of demand. Is there a continuing demand for STEM graduates? An October 2011 report from the Georgetown University's Centre on Education and the Workforce confirmed the high demand for science graduates, and that STEM graduates were paid a greater starting salary than non-science graduates. The Australian Mathematical Science Institute said the demand for doctorate graduates in mathematics and statistics will rise by 55 percent by 2020 (on 2008 levels). In the United Kingdom, the Department for Engineering and Science report, The Supply and Demand for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematical Skills in the UK Economy (Research Report RR775, 2004) projected the stock of STEM graduates to rise by 62 percent from 2004 to 2014 with the highest growth in subjects allied to medicine at 113 percent, biological science at 77 percent, mathematical science at 77 percent, computing at 77 percent, engineering at 36 percent, and physical science at 32 percent.
Fields of particular growth are predicted to be agricultural science (food production, disease prevention, biodiversity, and arid-lands research), biotechnology (vaccinations and pathogen science, medicine, genetics, cell biology, pharmagenomics, embryology, bio-robotics, and anti-ageing research), energy (hydrocarbon, mining, metallurgical, and renewable energy sectors), computing (such as video games, IT security, robotics, nanotechnologies, and space technology), engineering (hybrid-electric automotive technologies), geology (mining and hydro-seismology), and environmental science (water, land use, marine science, meteorology, early warning systems, air pollution, and zoology).
So why aren't graduates undertaking science careers? The reason is because it's just not cool -- not at secondary school, nor at university, nor in the workforce. Georgetown University's CEW reported that American science graduates viewed traditional science careers as "too socially isolating." In addition, a liberal-arts or business education was often regarded as more flexible in a fast-changing job market.
How can governments make science cool? The challenge, says Professor Ian Chubb, head of Australia's Office of the Chief Scientist, is to make STEM subjects more attractive for students, particularly females -- without dumbing down the content. Chubb, in his Health of Australian Science report (May 2012), indicated that, at research level, Australia has a relatively high scholarly output in science, producing more than 3 percent of world scientific publications yet accounting for only about 0.3 percent of the world's population. Australian-published scholarly outputs, including fields other than science, grew at a rate of about 5 percent per year between 1999 and 2008. This was considerably higher than the global growth rate of 2.6 percent. But why isn't this scholarly output translating into public knowledge, interest, and participation in science?
Chubb promotes a two-pronged approach to the dilemma: 1. science education: enhancing the quality and engagement of science teaching in schools and universities; and 2. science workforce: the infusion of science communication into mainstream consciousness to promote the advantages of scientific work.
Specifically, Chubb calls for creative and inspirational teachers and lecturers, as well as an increase in female academics, for positive role modeling, and to set science in a modern context. Instead of restructuring and changing the curriculum, he advocates training teachers to create ways to make mathematics and science more relevant to students' lives. Communicating about science in a more mainstream manner is also critical to imparting the value of scientific innovation. Chubb is a fan of social media to bring science into the mainstream and to change people's perception of science careers and scientists. Social media can also bring immediacy to the rigor, analysis, observation and practical components of science.
In practical terms, the recent findings on student attitudes to STEM subjects, their perception of scientific work, and the flow of STEM graduates to their field of expertise, may be improved by positively changing the way governments, scientists, and educators communicate science on a day-to-day level.
Contextual, situational, relevant science education is more likely to establish links between theory and practical application. This can be demonstrated through real-world applications, including science visits and explorations in the local environment, at all levels of education. Even university students should avoid being cloistered in study rooms, and be exposed to real world, real environment situations. Furthermore, science educators advocate the use of spring-boarding student queries, interests, and motivation into extra-curriculum themes that capture their imagination and innovation. Therefore, enabling students to expand core curricula requirements to include optional themes, projects, competitions, and activities chosen by individual students, groups, or school clusters lead to increased student (and teacher) motivation and participation. In addition, integrating and cross-fertilizing science with non-science subjects and day-to-day activities (e.g. the science of chocolate, sport science, technical drawings, artistic design, and clothing design) can powerfully place STEM subjects firmly into practical applications. "Scientists in residence" programs, in which local scientists work periodically in school and university settings, can inspire students and provide two-way communication opportunities. In addition, international collaborations between schools of different regions or countries through a range of technologies demonstrate and reinforce collaboration in the scientific workplace -- as a way to build a cadre of experts, exchange ideas, network, cooperate, economize, and create culturally diverse outcomes of excellence.

Volcano Science Fair Projects Tips

It can be hard for a child to decide what to do for a science fair project. There are so many project titles to choose from. Appropriate subjects range from biology and astronomy to engineering. Many children love the idea of volcano science fair projects. It would be a great project for first grade or for another lower elementary grade. Parents should love the idea as well since they are easy to make as far as the ease of getting the materials and the simplicity of the project itself.
Children who make volcano science fair projects are learning about earth science and environmental science as well. To prepare for the science fair, It would be a great idea for the child to check out and read books about volcanoes from the public library. It is also a good idea for them to keep track of their notes, thoughts, and ideas about how to do the project.
Basic supplies needed to complete volcano science fair projects include: baking soda, vinegar, and plaster of paris or clay (for the outside of the volcano). There are also modeling kits that can be purchased and used as well. The student should make sure that they follow any plan our outline that they have received from their teachers. The amount of work required may vary depending on their grade level.
Students who complete volcano science fair projects should remember to write down what they did as they are doing it so that they do not forget and to also write down their observations. Even though this is a simple project, it should be performed under the watchful eye of an adult for safety reasons.
Children can base their project on finding out which base and acid have the biggest reaction, what happens when bases and acids mix, or how volcano models be used to help people in real life. The project can be tailored to what the child wants to find out in order to make it interesting to them. More than one child can have a project pertaining to volcanoes and they can all be very different.

The Renaissance and Synergetic Environmental Science

Buckminster Fuller and Sir C P Snow warned that the existing unbalanced understanding of the second law of thermodynamics was accelerating civilisation toward global disaster. To prevent that disaster, modern science needed to be reunited with the Classical Greek Era's Humanities' life science. A question arises, is it possible for the Arts to construct a Social Cradle to help ensure that this reunification occurs in time to prevent such global chaos? This paper argues that the basis of a relevant environmental science exists to accomplish that task. It can become the foundation to uphold such a cradle and the Western Arts culture is beginning to become aware of the responsibility for its construction.

The concept is that evolution functions as a universal negentropic process, expressing the infinite properties of fractal geometrical logic. The Encyclopaedia of Human Thermodynamics defines life-science energy as synergy, providing a definition in complete contradiction to Einstein's contention that all of science must be governed by the second law of thermodynamics. The NASA High Energy Astrophysics Division library has published papers demonstrating that Classical Greek life-science was based upon fractal logic, in which case all life will not be destroyed by order of the second law of thermodynamics.

Sir Isaac Newton's unpublished papers, discovered last century, specifically balanced the present mechanistic entropic world view with a more profound natural philosophy of science. Newton's balancing principles were not only an expression of fractal logic but were the same principles that once upheld the ancient Greek life-science. It is nonsense for influential relics from the Inquisition to classify Newton's balancing science as an insane criminal heresy. Nonetheless, many eminent Western scientists still believe that all life must be destroyed in accordance with the dictates of Einstein's Premier law of all of science.

Arthur C Clark's televised documentary entitled Factals:Colours of Infinity, presented several eminent scientists, including Benoit Mandelbrot. Mandelbrot's famous fractal equation was justifiably hailed as the greatest mathematical discovery in human history. Arthur Clark then explains that fractal logic really does extend to infinity, adding the comment that fractal logic extends past the death of the universe.

Engineering under the yoke of the Principle of Destruction has long been considered a recipe for social disaster. Plato referred to engineers who were ignorant of optical spiritual engineering principles, as being barbarians only suited for continual warfare. The Parthenon was constructed upon Pythagorean fractal mathematical logic as a spiritual statement concerning the ethics that had been fused into theories of creation belonging to the Nous of Anaxagoras. The use of computers in the reconstruction of the Parthenon program revealed that the temple had been carefully constructed to create an optical illusion by using Golden Mean geometrical principles. Now that Plato's optical spiritual engineering principles have been successfully transferred by Buckminster Fuller into the synergies of a universal holographic chemistry endorsed by the three 1996 Nobel Laureates in Chemistry, the general present understanding of the second law is shown to be inadequate.

Our greatest scientists can be seen to be spiritually hobbled by the entropic yoke, and so are many of our greatest scholars representing the Humanities. Marsilio Ficino during the 15th Century, was head of the revived Academy of Plato in Florence. His work was dedicated to the functioning of Plato's atomic physics of the soul. Plato's engineering evil, associated with an obsession with destructive warfare, was defined in his Timaeus as a property of unformed matter within the physical atom. The Classical Greek Epicurean fractal logic science of universal love was about atomistic physics concepts. On the other hand the concept of Liberty within 18th Century American Democracy was constructed upon the principles of physics and geometry, using Sir Isaac Newton's published physics principles without any knowledge of his unpublished physics principles based upon fractal logic.

The ancient Greek checks and balances associated with Aristotle's ethical science to guide ennobling government can be considered to apply to the futuristic development of a protective technology to balance a barbaric engineering obsession with nuclear fission. Be that as it may, Plato's spiritual engineering principles are now firmly employed at the cutting edge of quantum biological research, in which our materialistic reality is but a very small aspect of a far greater holographic reality. We are now presented with a greater environmental science issue than was previously conceivable and we do need the relevant balanced environmental science.

It is illogical for global climate change life science to be kept separate from the fractal functioning of a rain cloud. Confused inadequate entropic environmental policies can be considered a precursor to potential nightmare scenarios. Princeton University advertises its environmental policies as being associated with the policies of the American President Woodrow Wilson. President Wilson established a Maria Montessori school in the White-house from which the engineering of her Golden Gates to the future might be deduced. The President wanted the American political ethos to move from a materialistic basis to a life science basis, because he considered Democracy to be a living thing. However, his choice of Darwinian life science was not compatible with Montessori's teaching, because Darwin had based his theories upon the second law of thermodynamics, derived from Thomas Mathus' Principles of Population essay. Montessori had classified the second law of thermodynamics as the greed energy law causing warfare and periodic economic collapse.

Montessori had worked with President Wilson, Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Eddison and Tielhard de Chardin. De Chardin's electromagnetic key to open the Golden Gates could only function for all people at the same time, in defiance of Darwinian theory in which the civilised races would exterminate the savage races. At the Nuremberg Nazi War Crimes Tribunal, high ranking German prisoners pointed out that Hitler's policies were derived from Darwinian Eugenics of which President Woodrow and Alexander Graham Bell were active proponents, as at that time were many eminent English and American scholars.

The distinction between barbaric and ethical electromagnetic engineering principles can be considered to be relevant to the discovery last century that a physics force governing optimal biological growth and development through space-time exists. This optical discovery was reprinted alongside works by such authors as Louis Pasteur and Sir Francis Crick, as an important discovery from the 20th Century World literature. The discovery demonstrated that entropic Darwinian science is unable to generate rigorous computer simulations of futuristic life-forms across 20 million years of space-time, while fractal life science mathematics can do so. The barbaric aspect of this fact is that Western culture remains governed by the second law of thermodynamics, which forbids the existence of a healthy universal fractal logic life force, even when Fullerene chemistry provides rigorous scientific evidence to the contrary.

The research methodology certainly does exist to generate futuristic human survival simulations across evolutionary periods of space-time. By observing such simulations, the nature of the futuristic survival technology would become obvious. We already can deduce the fact that population numbers present no problem within the environment of holographic reality. On the other hand, unbalanced entropic logic not only prevents the application of Plato's spiritual optical engineering principles, but it also accelerates the destructive chaos we can associate with World War II.

American Plutocracy can be now be seen to be failing to genuinely protect Western culture, however opportunity exists to develop Fullerene technologies from the newly discovered Fullerene medical science. We are becoming aware of the dangers of polluting the greater holographic environment and might investigate further that Platonic ethics was about establishing a science that by harmonising with the fractal universe for its healthy evolution, humans would not become extinct.

At it's Castle on the Hill in Northern New South Wales, the Science-Art Centre conducts workshops and lectures about the importance of worldwide Fullerene technological research. It considers that the life science company C Sixty, based upon Fullerene synergy discoveries by the three 1996 Nobel Laureates in Chemistry, might be frustrated by the limitations imposed by the entropic logic of global economic rationalisation. The Centre seeks to construct a Social Cradle model that might provide the popular support that Buckminster Fuller considered necessary to ensure human survival rather than oblivion.

Following academic exchanges with universities around the world, the Centre follows Kun Huangs' advice to nurture the ideas of independent scientists who present concepts based upon the geometries of Classical Greek fractal life science. In August 2010 the physicist Nassim Haramein delivered a lecture at the Centre and was filmed by Gaia Films, which have made many prize winning documentaries, two of these received human rights awards. A Gaia Films spokesperson stated that Hassim Haramein very beautifully and clearly married the knowledge of ancient Western learning and Eastern philosophy into the cutting edge of modern quantum bio-physics.

Fractal logic spirituality in art within an entropic culture was the theme of a Masters research project at Queensland's Beaudesert Regional Galleries in June 2010. The curator of the Project, Sally Peters receiving a Distinction for her paper, from the University of Tasmania. Buckminster Fuller's proposed intellectual science-art foundations for the Social Cradle needed to protect the rigorous new Fullerene global medical science can now be seen coming into being. At the Southern Cross University in Northern New South Wales, Dr Amanda Reichet-Brusett of the School of Environmental Science and Management is independently organising a September workshop entitled Exploring the synergies between art and science. Although the controversial definition of synergies contradicting the basis of global Western scientific culture might not have been fully taken into account, none the less, the much needed revision of environmental science can be seen to be emerging once again into Western culture. The Fullerene inspiration for human survival has begun to grow wings.

Summer Holiday Project Ideas for Teachers

Summer break is here, it's time for some creative reload for students. It's the best time for teachers to spark up creative fire in children by assigning them summer projects. Students get lot of free time during holidays, they can use their imagination to build something creative and inventive.

Any form of creativity is a healthy and relaxing for children. Working on different projects engages and sharpens their mind. In small children, it builds dexterity and motor function. Besides, projects are simply fun for kids. Projects teach children, how to present idea in the mind by giving it a physically form. While making projects, children learn to find resources for completing their tasks. These summer projects encourage children to work with wide variety of materials. They learn new skills and learn how to do research work for their project.

Science projects are most interesting for students. Teacher of each individual subject - Physics, Biology and Chemistry can pick topics that will instigate scientific learning in them. They learn to experiment, draw scientific method, analyze and reach conclusion. Another most complicated thing is to retain interest in math of children during summer vacations. Teachers need to give Math projects that will captivate their interest and further enhance their likeness for the subject.

Primary Projects - Grade 1st to 4th

• Creating a volcano model - Children need to learn several combinations of chemicals that cause a violent reaction to demonstrate the volcanic eruption in this project.

• Make a compass- Students can use needles, magnets, paperclips nails to prepare their own homemade compass.

• Solar system - Building a solar system is a good way to educate students about earth and the other planets that revolve around the sun.

• Egg Floatation - This project cum experiment displays how one can make an egg to sink, float or submerge. While doing this, children will learn about buoyancy.

Elementary projects - Grades 5th and 6th

• Model Airplanes - Designing airplane model will help students understand mechanism of flight etc.

• Distillation of water - children learn reliable method of producing pure drinking water

• Electricity generator - Students will understand and know how generator works and how it creates electricity. They also come to know that electricity that we use at home is produced by electric generators.

Intermediate projects - 7th and 8th Grade

• Understanding air and water pressure- Our bodies are used and are adjusted to such pressure. We will happen if air pressure will or exceed. Similarly effect of water.

• Spectrum and color production through use of prisms- Students may have observed effects when light passes trough or reflects from a glass object. Creating light color spectrum helps them to understand physical properties of individual light colors.

• Internal combustion engines - Through this project students learn about the structure and design of an internal combustion engine as it is used in every automobile

Senior projects - Grades 9th to 12th

• Projects under Engineering - Designing considerations for "Solar Heated" homes, designing considerations for "Solar-Cell" powered homes, production of electrical energy from mechanical sources

• Physical science - Study of accuracy of calculators, Understanding magnetic relaxation, making a universal reflector

• Environmental science - Study of city flora to smog, project on study of a shoreline, study of air purification methods, yeast: filtration agent for heavy metals?

The Knowledge Tree Academy which conducts teachers training course for those who are looking for teaching jobs. Its various courses include secondary school teaching, primary teacher training course, IT teacher training school management course, business management course and B.Ed Education.

Top 5 Green Careers - More People Pursuing Green Collar Jobs Out of College

In addition to the recent attention that elevated it to the American mainstream, the Green Jobs Industry has been a developing field for the past few decades. Patrick Heffernan's 1976 study Jobs for the Environment - The Coming Green Collar Revolution informed congress on the importance of environmental awareness in business and government. Alan Durning's book Green Collar Jobs first introduced the term to America. Focusing on the post-logging towns of the Pacific Northwest, his work examines the shift from an economic dependence on the natural resources of the land to an awareness of environmental and ecological preservation. This opened the doors for the green collar industry and such fields as sustainable forestry, natural resource conservation, and ecological restoration. And, in 2006 Dr. Raquel Pinderhughes of San Francisco State University defines green collar jobs as "blue collar jobs in green businesses - that is, manual labor jobs in businesses whose products and services directly improve environmental quality," finally offering a concrete definition of the term.

Today, with environmental awareness at an all-time high, we are seeing an increase in employment opportunities across the board. Scientists are needed to analyze, protect, and monitor the environment and society's interaction with it. Builders and urban planners are needed to design and construct environmentally friendly neighborhoods, parks, recreation areas, and housing and commercial developments. The field of alternative and renewable energies have opened the doors to students of engineering, technicians, analysts, and environmental management looking to "green" their career paths.

The American Solar Energy Society (ASES) has stated that there are 8.5 million jobs in the solar energy field. Educators ranging from middle school earth science teachers to environmental biology professors are providing much needed instruction and preparation to an enthusiastic generation eager to repair the planet in the fields of environmental management, natural resource conservation, and forest preservation. Organic and sustainable farming, one of the oldest green professions, is still an ever growing field as people are becoming more aware of environmentally responsible farming practices.

So, even if your interests and education don't involve years of study in agronomy or geology, water conservation or landscape architecture, you can still find a career that lets you "go green."


Professional Field

Environmental engineers are finding work in the fields of urban planning, green building, solar, wind, and hydroelectric energy farms and plants. These environmentally educated engineers conduct building site appraisals, work with architects and planners on construction projects, work with environmental policy makers, work as technicians and electrical engineers, and use their knowledge of the effects and control of pollutions working for large plants and manufacturers.

Environmental engineers, along with their technical and analytical expertise, focus on environmental compliance issues and work with managers and executives on the adherence to federal regulatory practices.

So whether a student has a background in science or technology there are an abundance of jobs in the green-collar industry that can help the environment.

University Education

For most high level engineering positions, an advance degree is required. However, individuals with environmental engineering degrees can find work with a bachelor's degree. Core courses at most university programs emphasize math, physics, and the natural sciences.

Job Outlook

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) environmental engineers will see a 10-25% increase in the job market over the next decade.

Engineering salaries have always been above the average for the U.S. work force, and as the demand for environmental engineers in new "green" fields grows, these salaries will as well.


Professional Field

Sustainable Architects are finding themselves in high demand as the push for "greener" building practices reaches from the commercial industry to the residential one. Sustainable Architects work closely with Urban Planners and Parks and Recreation professionals to develop sustainable environments for living, business, and recreation.

University Education

Most architectural schools are integrating "green" building practices into their curriculum and degree programs. Sustainable architecture courses are found in sustainable design programs, urban planning programs, and, as they become more prevalent in the world of academia, sustainable architecture programs.

Job Outlook

The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) initiative set forth by the U.S. Green Building Council has given rise to new guidelines for the implementation of "green" standards for construction companies. Sustainable Architects will be in high demand as communities, new and old, want to follow the green trend and bring their properties up to these new standards.

The U.S. Green Building Council reports that the U.S. green building industry has a sales volume of more than $5 billion dollars in the last two years and currently sits at $12 billion. More money being spent translates into more opportunities.


Professional Field

One of the biggest facing the green revolution is the conversion of the urban landscape to an acceptable environmental sustainability. As epicentres of resource use (and misuse) and wastefulness, the urban landscape in the U.S. needs to be designed (and repaired) from an environmental and ecological point of view. Environmentally educated planners dedicated to reconfiguring our communities around resource efficiency and decreased waste will be essential.

University Education

Many Urban Planning and Public Policy programs are adding sustainable design and planning to their curriculum. Along with the natural and social sciences, students are receiving educations in engineering and architecture to aid them in the new green Urban Planning field.

Job Outlook

According to the BLS, employment for Urban Planners is expected to grow at a rate of 15% over the next decade. This is driven by the need to preserve existing urban communities and to provide them with ways to become more "green" conscious and energy and resource efficient. Also, the largest sector of this industry will deal with the development of new, environmentally sound, urban communities.


Porfessional Field

Finally, a law practice which receives applause rather than disdain from the general public. Law students are finding this "green" legal field readily available in their university's curriculum and the professional field very welcoming. The "greening" of the nation has seen the enactment of dozens of federal policies, several congressional acts, and countless corporate and business regulations. When a corporation or large business fails to comply with federal green regulations, an environmental law group steps in to ensure the future compliance of the group. It is the job of environmental law students to work as policy pushers and consultants to make sure corporations, states and cities, and the general public adhere to these new green initiatives.

University Education

Many law schools across the country are now offering J.D. degrees with concentrations in environmental law. Programs are now becoming interdisciplinary, with courses offered in the natural and social sciences in such areas as conservation, ethics, policy, and national and global issues.

Job Outlook

With corporations across the U.S. seeking guidance about the ecological impact of their actions - from land use to pollution control - the need for environmental lawyers and corporate consultants is expected to increase at a rate of 25 percent over the next decade (EPA).


Many fields of environmental science are now in high demand. Environmental Scientists can be found in "green" fields of business ranging from agriculture to education, and from energy to building. They often work as consultants in the development of wildlife parks, and as researchers in new forms of biofuel production and pollution control.

University Education

They take the training they acquired at the university level in the natural sciences (biology, chemistry, ecology, geology, forestry) and apply to the working world, all the while focusing on environmental conservation and protection. For research and higher level manager positions, an advanced degree is usually required. However, environmental scientists with bachelor's degrees are finding an abundant amount of opportunities available.

Job Outlook

According to the BLS, the employment of Environmental Scientists is expected to increase at a rate of 25 percent over the next decade, a rate much higher than the national average. Currently, 43% of all Environmental Scientists work for local, state, or federal governments (BLS). Many work for consulting firms, or as private consultants.


Conservation Biologist

Conservation biologists focus on the protection and restoration of biodiversity in various ecosystems on the planet. They develop environmental planning and management practices to maintain the wildlife and resources of the earth's natural ecology.


Hydrologists use science and math backgrounds to improve and solve water quality issues. They work with natural bodies of water to improve aquatic ecosystems, and also with man made reservoirs to improve the quality of drinking water and irrigation for farming.


Toxicologists study the causes and effects of harmful toxins, and how we can better protect ourselves from the exposure to poisons. Toxicologists study how we are exposed to toxicants, the levels it takes to harm us, and how to reduce or eliminate the effects of toxins. They study the effect of toxins in drinking water, agricultural products, household cleaners, and many other everyday products.


Ecologists study the relationship between the environment and actions that affect it, including weather, pollution, climate change, human interference, and industrialization. Ecologists work in a range of environmental fields including forest preservation, wildlife science and protections (especially working with endangered species restoration), park and woodlands development, and water and natural resource conservation. The main goal and responsibility of all ecologists is environmental preservation and sustainability.

You're hearing about it a lot during this election campaign: green collar jobs. Both presidential candidates, Barack Obama and John McCain, are talking a lot about alternatives to fossil fuel and the need for Detroit to more aggressively develop more fuel efficient autos. The world can slowly march forward as more college students choose environmental science careers - something enabled by universities adapting to current needs. Learn more on JobMonkey, a free career website.

What Should Be Included In An Environmental Impact Statement?

If a project is potentially environmentally significant and if it is federally controlled, then an environmental impact statement (EIS) is required by the National Environmental Policy Act. A project is federally controlled if it is undertaken by the federal government or if it requires federal funding or federal licensing.
Whenever such a project or a program is planned there could be potential environmental impacts. The impact of these projects can have a profound effect on the general public. If the federal government will fund the proposed projects then these potential impacts have to be detailed in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).
An EIS is a report that is an outline of any predicted environmental effects that a particular project or action may incur. These statements must be accurate. They often are referred to in matters of environmental litigation and environmental regulation.
An environmental impact statement of an activity will highlight any of the significant ramifications the activity or project will have on the environment. It also describes alternative actions and must also include an analysis of what will happen if no action is taken.
Section 102(2) (C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (PL91-190) requires that all federal agencies have to consider any of the most likely environmental effects their programs and projects may incur.
What Should You Include In An Environmental Impact Statement?
An EIS for a proposed project should outline the details of the actions that are proposed, any alternative actions that should be considered (including no action), and whatever environmental ramifications are probable. All of the plausible results are usually determined by the rule of reason. This rule refers to what activity a "reasonable person" would feel is significant enough to warrant any further discussion.
In addition, an EIS must provide information on the probable impact of any alternative actions that are not in the jurisdiction of the responsible agency.
The Council on Environmental Quality has established guidelines for environmental statements. Although the requirements for an EIS will vary from one situation to the next, here are the most pertinent factors to consider. The guideline should:
• Consider both indirect as well as direct effects of the project
• Show whether the project will interfere with other activities
• Indicate the resource and energy requirements of the project
• Consider the reparation and conservation potential
• Indicate ways that will minimize whatever damage might ensue
• Preserve the historic, urban, and cultural quality of the area
You can learn more about environmental impact statements through various environmental courses that are available online.

The Future History of Soccer - Predicting the Next Sixty Years

Like a lot of people who went to elementary school in the 1980s, I grew up hearing wondrous tales of what the world would look like in the year 2000. Based on the fictions spread by my various teachers, we faced one of two future outcomes: the Soviet Union (remember them?) would either trigger a thermonuclear war, or we would all be zipping around in jetpacks and flying cars, wearing oddly matching jumpsuits and eating only large pills and colored liquid. Of course, neither of those things happened, and though my car is very much attached to terra firma, the intervening years have brought a number of changes to society, the likes of which nobody would have likely predicted in 1984.

The point, I suppose, is that the prognostication business is at best a crapshoot, and at worst a chance for people to write things that subsequent events will make a mockery of. Soccer is not immune to stupid predictions, as anyone who has followed Pele's occasional commentary in the press knows all to well. So, wanting to look ahead to the future of soccer, but not wanting to expose myself to the ridicule of being proved wrong, I will look way, way head to the year 2062, and tell you what the footballing world will look like in 54 years. I'll be 85 by then, which means I'll either be dead, senile, or so happy that I finally got my flying car that I won't care that I wrote something 54 years ago that makes me sound foolish! If I'm lucky, I would have just seen my 19th World Cup. So what will 2062 Brian Fobi have seen?

1. England still won't have won another World Cup. At the close of the 2062 World Cup, England fans will look forward to the 2066 Cup, knowing that certainly fate will be on their side as they stare down the 100th anniversary of their last win. England is the consummate quarterfinalist, and can look back at a hundred years of Ronaldinho goals, Beckham red cards, Rooney red cards, and Brookyln Beckham red cards, and believe that they are jinxed, but the truth is that they are just not that good.

2. China will still be the next big thing. Based on everything you read in the news, in 40 years the Chinese will own, run, manufacture, manage, and dominate everything. FIFA expects great things from China, and certainly between then and now China will host at least one World Cup, but more likely two. The Chinese women will continue to do well, but unless a great many things change, I don't see China putting together the kind of league and national youth system necessary to produce 11 world class players. Also, beware the China bubble. China might continue to grow at 10% for the next 50 years, or we may find out that a managed state and economy cannot bear the burden of its first major economic downturn. That discussion is best served in another venue on another day, but suffice to say that I am not yet sold on China's perpetually bright future, and this goes doubly for football.

3. CONMEBOL and CONCACAF will merge. A merger of these two regions only makes sense. And, as a child of he 1980s, seeing these parts merge gives me memories of Devastator coming together to work at the behest of Megatron to drive the Autobots... sorry. Back to my point, a merger of the North American and South American confederations makes sense, and it will improve the quality of play all around. First, it would give America and Canada more consistent and meaningful exposure to top competition. Second, it would make the regional championship (Cup of the Americas? Americas' Cup? Copa de Americas?) a truly first rate event that upstages the Euros and takes its place as the second greatest soccer tournament in the world, after the World Cup. Third, the sheer size of the confederation would necessitate breaking the nations into groups, which would mean fewer games for qualifying for the South American teams.

4. The Caribbean nations will jointly host the greatest World Cup of all time. Building on their joint hosting of the Cricket World Cup, 10 Caribbean nations will treat football fans to the most fun, sun-soaked, and festive World Cup on record. Moving between World Cup venues by cruise boat or airplane, thousands of fans will gather to watch soccer in the daytime, then drink and party at night. The final in Port of Spain will take place to a steel drum soundtrack, and everyone, even the defeated fans, will leave happy.

5. The United States will win a World Cup. I'm not saying when, but in the next 56 years, it will happen. If you are skeptical (ahem, consummate America-hater Luis "Snacks" Bueno, I'm talking to you), you are way too pessimistic. Think about it: if my prediction is true, the grandmother of the team's captain might be in preschool right now. The USA has built a first rate youth system, has excellent corporate backing, has the best sports science in the world, and dadgummit, we're Americans and we don't lose. This the sporting equivalent of the Apollo moon mission. Hell or high water we will get it done.

6. Britain will finally get its act together and field a joint team. I know, this seems unlikely, especially with Scotland getting greater independence and all, but let's be honest. Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland all have to struggle just to qualify for the World Cup, to say nothing of actually winning it. And, since England is not itself a sovereign nation, it does not make any more sense that they should be a FIFA member than it would for say, Minnesota, to join FIFA. Frustrated by continued failures, and perhaps even a bit chastened by their experience with the Olympics in which the IOC did not allow England to send its own team, they will get their act together and kit up a British squad.

7. Africa will... wow, who knows? This is the toughest one. I have no doubt that Africa will continue to produce top-tier talent, and I expect that in 50 years most of the top players in the world will come from Africa. The real question, though, is whether Africa can begin to develop leagues that can compete at the highest levels and whether their football associations will stop interfering with and destroying their national teams. In the last decade, we have seen he football associations of Nigeria, Cameroon, Senegal and Cote d'Ivoire rightfully accused of theft, massive mismanagement of players, threats of violence, political coercion, and utter and complete incompetence on a scale heretofore unseen in soccer history. To make matters worse, African nations have not dedicated themselves to developing their own coaches, do not adequately prepare youth, and offer the most shoddy and dilapidated facilities in which to train and play.

That said, the continent continues to produce fantastic players, and the march that began with Weah and Milla from Liberia and Cameroon, respectively, continues with true gems like Drogba, Eto'o, Adebayor, Essien, and a bevy of other stars. In the end, the fortunes of African soccer will rise or fall with the continent's ability or inability to right its economies, to produce wealth, to create infrastructure, and to purge its governments, and thereby its football associations, of the kind of kleptocratic, nepotistic, and capricious bureaucracy that has ground down the continent's best minds and talents. If the continent can turn itself around, there are a least ten nations that have the potential to become true world soccer powers (Cameroon, Nigeria, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Senegal, Egypt, South Africa, Morocco, Tunisia, and Togo come to mind). If not, then we will see what we have seen in the last 25 years: stars arise, and every World Cup one or two African nations will impress, but the rest will fall flat.

8. The three best leagues in the world will be 1) The Brazilian league, 2) the MLS, and 3) French Ligue 1. Brazil has increasingly become more sure of itself as a nation, and as its economy grows, it will produce the kind of broad and deep wealth capable of supporting teams who develop and retain the best players in the world. When Santos, Flamengo and Gremio have he bankroll to prevent players like Kaka, Ronaldinho, or Robinho from leaving, the Brazilian teams will improve rapidly and exponentially. As for the MLS, soccer is growing steadily and surely in the United States, and within twenty years or so, the league will be among the best in the world. The United States has a real advantage because, as the world's cultural center, it will always have a cache and drawing power that other nations cannot match. In other words, once the MLS becomes a viable option, financially and competitively, with European leagues, the marketing potential and luster of the United States will allow the MLS to move past its European rivals. Twenty years might seem too soon, but the league recently celebrated its 10th anniversary, and anyone around for the inauspicious opening days of the league can attest to the manner and rate of its growth. As for France, it's just a hunch, nothing more. The league has long under-performed, and it seems like a nation of France's wealth and soccer pedigree should have a better league. Also, look out for the J-League.

9. Australia will rue the day they moved to Asia. The thinking was that by moving to Asia, Australia would have an easier road to qualification. In the past, the Oceania winner would have to face a home-and-home playoff against a South American team, and until this last World Cup, Australia could be counted on to lose that. As Japan, South Korea, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and China continue to improve, it will become the case that Australia faces an increasingly difficult road to qualifying, and will miss some World Cups that it may have made had it decided to instead take on teams like Uruguay or Venezuela.

10. Someone will take FIFA down a notch. In recent years, Sepp Blatter has become more and more sanctimonious and over-the-top in the way that he discusses soccer's role in the world, its ability to transcend national boundaries and, more troublingly, that the game (or, more pointedly, the administrators of the game: FIFA) is not subject to any national laws. There have been other sporting institutions that have tried to advance the same lame argument, and in the United States, at least, they have typically lost. FIFA needs to be subject to national laws, and talk to the contrary is utter rubbish, and if true would give FIFA a status that no other institution in the world possesses. Sure, this would cause administrative headaches for FIFA, but to assert that FIFA can do whatever it wants without, for example, concern for local labor laws, is both anti-democratic and completely unjustified. In addition, FIFA will have to learn a hard lesson as it attempts to fight the flow of history and enforce caps on foreign players employed and fielded by club teams. Globalization is a reality, and eventually FIFA will learn these lessons.

So, by the time I am on my deathbed, soccer will look quite a bit different. In most respect these changes will be positive. Now that I have offered my opinion on what the next six decades hold, I'm curious to hear your opinions on what you think will happen in the world of soccer.

Calcutta Science City: Bringing Science to Millions of People

Kolkata (Calcutta) was the first city that developed a series of science centers and museums in India. It brings the world of science closer to millions of people.

Calcutta is the home of the popular Science City located at the Eastern Metropolitan Bypass. It was built during the 21st century, accommodating up to 2,215 people. Science City is one remarkable science museum in India that promotes learning about sciences, the environment, communications, and about modern technology. Science City is a series of centers, museums, halls, theatres and parks. These attractions made the complex the largest center in the sub-continent.


Science City aims to expose the growth of Science and Technology along with its applications for the environment and human welfare. People behind this center want to promote public understanding and awareness, especially with regard to the importance of scientific studies and culture. The center also wants to popularize science and technology by providing seminars, exhibitions, lectures, camps and other programs.


Science City has a sylvan surrounding of beautiful landscape and gardens. It consists of two facilities namely, the Science and Convention Center. The Science Center also includes an Evolution Theme Park, Space Odyssey, Maritime Center, Dynamotion Hall and a Science Park.

The Evolution Theme Park stands in a 1,300 square meter area that takes visitors back to early age of evolution. It provides knowledge on gigantic animals of the past like dinosaurs and birds. It is divided into seven period settings ending with the advent of man.

The Space Odyssey is a circular dome shaped auditorium that looks like an inverted bowl. It is the main attraction of the complex building, housing the first theater for large format films, a time Machine, planetarium, Van de Graff generator and mirror magic. 3D Vision theaters showcase virtual reality on space sciences, electricity and motion. The spherical multi media projection system provides information on planets in the solar system.

The Maritime Center is a pavilion that describes maritime history, activity and subjects. The center is a two story building that was built on a 700 meters area similar to a ship. It exhibits scaled models, replicas, artifacts and sea going vessels. A quiz corner also supplements the exhibit.

The Dynamotion Hall has an exhibition of giant robotic insects, interactive exhibits, butterfly corner and aquaria. This is a large spiral shaped hall that offers a deep understanding on certain scientific phenomenon. Visitors can create music on the piano floor and virtual harp as well as make large dishes float on air. Exciting exhibits like a working tornado, aqua mobile and energy ball would keep people immersed on the discovery processes.

The hall also showcases robotic insect having 28 static models and 23 large animated models of insects. The exhibition provides information about different insects like the housefly, wasp, mosquito and beetle as well as the termite, cricket, spider and many more.

The Science Park provides free choices of learning outdoor exhibits. It includes a Children’s Play Corner, Gravity Coaster, Road Train and a Maze. This is along with the Caterpillar Ride, Monorail Cycle, Butterfly Nursery and Musical Fountain. This fountain dances to the music with colored water jets.

Convention Center

The Convention Center has a Grand Theater that can occupy 2,232 seats. It also has a seminar building having 11 halls with a 15 to 100 seating capacity. This place also includes one Mini Auditorium for 450 people and a 20,000 square meter open air exhibition ground. It is the perfect place for conventions, company AGMs, meetings and cultural programs.

There are also 8 halls that can accommodate 200 to 250 people. It has modern amenities. Visitors can visit the lounges (Bengal Gallery, Durga Mandap and Mukta Mancha), food plaza, basement and the open field. Hence, upcoming facilities include an Earth Exploration Hall, Powers of Ten (dimension of the Universe) and Illusions (visual perception).

People of all ages can learn various scientific processes and even enhance their understanding through the discovery methods and outdoor settings these scientific institutions can provide. It is an ideal tourist destination for aspiring Scientists and for those who are interested in Science and Technology. It is a great place for children to develop their interest in the field.